Physically Fit Travel: The Reykjavik Marathon And More

fclftHigh in the sky a solitary plane appeared – and then a multi-colored dot. As we watched, mesmerized, the dot drifted downward, spiraling over downtown Reykjavik, over the now-hushed crowd of runners. Soon we could see the skydiver dangling from his chute. But it became increasingly apparent that there was no place to land. And then he was down, hitting a water table, knocking it over, almost hitting us. In typical “Just to it” Icelandic fashion, the Reykjavik Marathon had begun.

Without so much as a “Ready, set, go,” some 1500 runners from 15 countries were pounding down Reykjavik’s main thoroughfare. Most were running a 7K; my husband Frank and I and most of our tour group were running the half marathon. Just a handful of hardy souls – fewer than 80, and only three women – would attempt the marathon. As we headed out of town toward the country’s only highway, I drank in the stark brown-grey beauty of a volcano-ringed fjord and thought about this unusual country.

Frank and I had first visited Iceland five years before. Reykjavik, the world’s most northern capital city, was small and parochial then – in spirit, if not in size. It was June that first time; the sun set about 11:30 p.m. and rose again at 2 a.m., and there was enough light in between to hike the brown volcano we hoped was truly extinct, and touch the glacier that hugged its side.

Iceland is still so geologically “new” it seems to be sitting on a time bomb. Its snow-capped volcanoes erupt often, with devastating effects. Much of the country’s land remains lavastrewn, broken by the same sulfurous thermal plumes that gave Reykjavik – literally, “Smoky Bay” – its name when the city was settled by the Norse in 874. (The pure language of the Norse remains the modern Icelandic tongue.)

Iceland was like nothing we had ever seen. When Marathon Tours listed the Reykjavik Marathon in its brochure, we thought it was a great excuse to see the country again.

This time it was August when we landed at Keflevik airport, but once again I was struck by the incredible cleanness of the air. Reykjavik’s rainbow-hued roofs and carefully tended gardens stood out in such crisp relief against the cloudless sky that you could almost bite into them. Except for the distant steam on the horizon, Reykjavik is spectacularly smoke-free city; its ancient thermal springs have been harnessed to produce all the heat and hot water the city needs. It was only 7 a.m., but I couldn’t wait to run those pristine streets – especially when I knew my reward would be a hot shower that would never run out.

Our rooms at the Loftleidir hotel were spartan even by Icelandic standards. But fixated on food as runners typically are, everyone was enthralled by the Scandinavian breakfast included in our room rate: juice, corn flakes and yogurt, cheeses, lunch meat, breads, rolls and endless thermos pots of coffee on each table. Icelandic portions are tiny by US standards, and prices are very high – kaffi og kaka (coffee and cake) is $12 – so the morning buffet was very welcome.

We had three days before Sunday’s marathon, and Frank and I used them to relive some memories. But Iceland’s capital had made a quantum leap in style and spirit – it was now a glitzy, 1980s world city. Where a large open field had been five years before stood Iceland’s first glass and steel shopping center – complete with a Hard Rock Cafe.

Instead of conserving our energy for the task ahead, we walked everywhere, despite the typically cool, drizzly weather. When the chill went too deep, we mingled with the natives at Sundlaugar, one of Reykjavik’s two huge, thermally heated outdoor pools. These pools are social centers; as obvious outsiders we were accepted, but the Icelanders paid us little attention.

Although Icelanders are taught English as a second language, many won’t speak it. The ancient Icelandic language is almost sacred, and its guardians go to great lengths to keep it pure and unpolluted. When a new word comes along – such as television (sjonvarp) – Icelanders combine existing words (in this case, “sight” and “throwing something”) to cope, rather than incorporate a new one.

The night before the marathon, there was a pasta party for foreign runners – about 80 percent of the marathoners and close to 20 percent of the half-marathoners. A cacaphony of tongues buzzed around us, and each person wore his or her most prestigious race T-shirt – for Frank and me, our newly acquired Reykjavik ones. Our tour group – 26 independent souls from all over the states – were there in force. We were ready to carbo-load. But the heaping plates of pasta we’d been dreaming about didn’t materialize – there was barely enough to go around. Our group exchanged glances and headed to a cafe for reinforcements.

Race day dawned clear with a temperature of about 55 degrees – perfect. The route followed the shore – for the first six miles, an unbroken expanse of white-capped volcanoes and protected bay – along a wide, paved road completely free of potholes. Relatively flat, the road passed the Hofdi House, the small building at the harbor’s edge where Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev held their historic summit meeting.

Runners have a bond no matter what their language or country; the Icelandic runners were far more forthcoming than the average, somewhat reticent citizen. Frank and I struck up a conversation with an Icelandic mathematics professor who taught at the University of Virginia and was home for the summer. Actually, the professor talked and I listened – to keep up, I was running faster than I should have. I paid for it in the last four miles, as Frank pulled ahead and disappeared down the road. But my new friend – who had never run 13.1 miles – stayed with me as we hit the only residential section of the race. I was lucky to be with a native: The course was sparsely marked, there were few spectators, and most of the 350 runners in the half marathon were ahead of us.

The marathoners had the second lap to themselves, since I and the other half-marathoners finished after one lap and collected our little gold medals. We stopped to cheer Mae Ann Garty, from San Diego – one of three women going the distance – as she went by looking fresh and determined.

That night, Iceland outdid itself. Our awards banquet was at Reykjavik’s most sophisticated night spot – the black and white and silver Hollywood Disco. There was a roast beef dinner and a dance band. And there was Mae Ann Garty, who at 62 had won the women’s marathon in just over four hours. She arrived wearing her laurel wreath and a face-splitting grin, and never stopped dancing.

Monday was a winddown day. For Frank and me it was a chance to rediscover the real Iceland – that part that begins on the outskirts of Reykjavik. With a tour guide and bus, our tour group headed out. Soon we were walking on lush green fields that had known history so vivid it seemed to jump across time.

We headed to Thingvellir, Iceland’s most sacred historical site. Now a National Park, it’s where Iceland’s parliament, the world’s oldest continuous legislative body, first convened in 930 A.D. Every summer for two weeks families met on the green plains of Thingvellir to settle grievances, trade, make marriages and elect the law speaker, who recited all the nation’s laws from memory. It was not until 1798 that the parliament was moved indoors, to Reykjavik.

And then it was Tuesday, and time to move on. Some in our tour stayed in Iceland, some returned to the states. Frank and I hopped a plane for Luxembourg, taking advantage of Icelandair’s longstanding $10 per person second-leg flight. Our vacation had just begun.

Geography Of Nowhere Review: Man-Made Madness

The Geography Of Nowhere burns rubber from its very first words with a deft pop culture summation of our national transportation predicament taken straight from the movie, “Who Framed Roger Rabbit?” The movie’s villain is Judge Doom, a cartoon character posing as a human being with an evil scheme to create a car-crazed society. Of course, Doom is eventually unmasked and winds up being flushed into the Los Angeles sewer system. Eddie Valiant, the movie’s detective hero comments, “That lamebrain freeway idea could only have been cooked up by a ‘toon.” All of this leads author James Howard Kunstler to conclude: “In the real world, Judge Doom’s vision has prevailed and we are stuck with it. Yet the movie’s central metaphor – that our civilization has been undone by an evil cartoon ethos – could not be more pertinent, for more and more we appear to be a nation of overfed clowns living in a hostile cartoon environment.”

The Geography of Nowhere roller-coasters through locales, disciplines, and histories. It manages to jumpcut modes of exposition, moving through a quirky syncopation of journalism, personal essay and formal criticism without skipping a beat. But this book serves up some of its best insights in its careening, drive-by attempts to indict the origins of our car-based culture. It is a devastating portrait of an antisocial, paved-over country with its once-beautiful landscape sacrificed to greed, a country littered by dislocating commercial ugliness that sprawls recklessly now under a browning sky. This book throws firecrackers into our fire of public consciousness of the relationships between traffic and environmental degradation.

Note the overripe irony with which The Geography of Nowhere introduces the automobile: “There was nothing like it before in history: a machine that promised liberation from the daily bondage of place… it was assumed that cars would merely serve as wonderfully useful accessories in the human habitat as it then was, that they would make the city better, and cure all the troubles of rural life, without altering the arrangement of things in either place.”

But, in fact, the car changed everything. As we now mark the 100th year of the US auto industry, we are hard-pressed to counter the remark of the British author J.B. Priestly who wryly observed, “In America, the cars have become the people.” By failing to make transportation strategy a basis of an ecological land-use planning, we have allowed this industry to dominate and shape the young business (only 120 years older than the domestic auto industry) we call our Federal government.

Cars are the most deadly and dangerous addiction in the US and their 12-step recovery programs are few and far between. Here we drive about two billion miles a year – that’s about 10 round trips to the sun or about as far as the rest of the world altogether drives in a year. But then we own 35 percent of the world’s cars and trucks with only 4.7 percent of the world’s population. Each year in the US almost 15 million motor vehicle accidents kill about 40,000 people, injuring another five million people, at least 300,000 of them severely. Each year the US loses over $350 billion or about eight percent of our Gross National Product to these accidents. The death toll from US cars is already far greater than that of all the country’s wars.

Perhaps the time has come to take up the suggestion put forth by one of our best social commentators and urban experts, Lewis Mumford, that the concrete cloverleaf would make an appropriate US national flower. The US economy, though still committed to letting the number of cars expand to fill the endlessly subsidized and constructed stretches of concrete, now loses many billions of dollars per year because of all the productive time lost to traffic jams. It can be projected from current trends that US motorists will spend an average of two years of their lifetime stuck in traffic.

Getting There tells the story of how the US became an autocentric society, albeit one that offers us a very different approach and voice than that of The Geography of Nowhere. By contrast to Kunstler’s leapfrogging from one target or text to the next, Getting There is a linear and focused, eminently straight-ahead and sober work of scholarship. But Goddard is no less passionate, incisive or clear in his story indicting government and business for unprecedented human and environmental degradation.

Goddard’s own words best suggest the range of the story he recounts and the texture of its telling. He writes: “By the 1920s, a powerful force had evolved, wedding road builders and the motor industry, in which government and business joined happily in promoting as a national policy one mode of travel over all others. The highway-motor complex coalesced automakers, cement, asphalt, and steel producers, and petroleum companies into a common purpose. Along the way, it added such diverse groups as road contractors, insurance companies, banks, and motel operators” to name but a few. The highway advocates became so dominant in American life that they were instrumental in changing the character of cities and helping to suburbanize the nation. And as the highway-motor complex eventually came to employ one of every six American workers, it became self-perpetuating by making the economy dependent on its continued health.”

Getting There continues: “The belief that in the march of progress, railroads simply yielded to a more advanced form of transportation is a myth. In fact, the highway-motor complex nearly killed off the American railroads. How its members went about that is a saga filled with high ideals and craven conspiracy, ambition and inertia, vision and myopia, inspiration and intrigue, opportunism and stupidity, greed and lust for power. The panoramic struggle displays the American character at its worst and at its best – showing how a fearful, fledgling democracy took on forces larger than itself and came to control some and become controlled by others during the golden age some have labeled ‘the American century.'”

The voice of Goddard’s storytelling is consistently even and emotionally understated. Witness this classic bit of diplomatic summing up in Getting There’s last paragraph: “Americans, in their fragile two-century-old experiment with democracy, have erred often in the quest for a workable relationship between humankind and capital.”

Both Getting There and The Geography of Nowhere are good places to pursue a reconsideration of our transportation and land-use policy. Much of the accumulated knowledge about these issues is relatively inaccessible to the general public. We need greater public awareness of the environmental and social impacts of the. technologies that surround and inform our daily lives. We remain incredibly passive about our human role in a technological evolution that is proving so destructive. These books at least provide a frame for beginning to examine the economic, social, political, and historical forces that converge in their stories and in our lives.

Both books, however, are not places for systemic thinking or thoroughgoing analysis. They remind us that even its critics tend to critique technology solely in terms of who gets the most access to it, or who controls it, or the quality of the choices that they make for its use. Everything about the authors, prescriptions for societal/environmental change are things you’ve likely heard before; although Goddard offers a particularly good gloss on possible legislative remedies at the Federal level.

Changing anything about our culture of car dependence will certainly be a particular challenge in the US given our general tendencies toward smothering, co-opting or commercializing critical or systemic thinking, and our remoteness from the innovative practices taking place today. One European critic noted that the US is where “the merest whispers of traffic restraint probably lead to the unbuttoning of holsters, and the removal of safety catches.” Today’s seemingly intractable environmental problems are symptoms of deeper problems in our culture like how we view the world and our human place in it. Our first steps in addressing these problems are to recognize that we do have choices and to acknowledge that we are continually remaking our culture.

The Geography Of Nowhere, in one of its more reflective passages, frames a central dilemma of today’s environmental movement in asserting: “In a culture that views ecology as the antithesis to economy, it is difficult to think clearly about how we live in relation to where we are. So we drop the subject from the political debate entirely. We have witnessed the collapse of the communist economic system with a strange smugness, unaware that our own vaunted way of life is in the process of bankrupting us, too. Even environmentalists, committed to the rescue of wild places, have failed to address the problem of human ecology in the places where we live and work.”

Environmentalists do need to begin to address human ecology in a way that connects sensibly to everyday lives and to their hard-earned doubts about other people’s campaigns. We are severely challenged to develop the possibilities of ecological restructuring within a nation where the ruling class maxims of the business of America is business” or “history is bunk” still prevail. These books are valuable contributions to that effort.

Militia Movement Long Haters Of Environmental Thinking

mmlhRecent attacks on environmental activists and federal employees point to emerging links between right-wing militias and the anti-environmental wise use and property rights movements. The militias, brought to prominence after the Oklahoma City bombing, advocate military resistance to federal government agencies, including those that enforce environmental regulations.

Last October, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) offices in Reno, Nevada were bombed during congressional debate of public range reform. And the day after the Oklahoma bombing, employees and members of the BLM, Audubon Society and Native Forest Council received bomb and death threats.

In March, a bomb exploded at the U.S. Forest Service office in Carson City, Nevada. In July 1994, a county commissioner, backed by an armed group, chased two Forest Service rangers off a road he was illegally bulldozing through the Toiyabe National Forest in southern Nevada.

David Helvarg, author of The War Against the Greens, says that the militia movement is “united by two key themes–the right to bear arms and a conspiratorial view of government.” Those who feel threatened with losing their livelihoods through additional regulation of resource extraction industries like mining or logging are most likely to forge links with the militias. “The militias have found very fertile ground in the wise use movement,” Helvarg says, noting that in the West militias use the movement “as their primary recruiting ground.”

The groups have overlapping memberships, ties between leadership, and distribute materials at each other’s meetings. The counties movement–which advocates county sheriffs arrest federal employees who fail to respect the “customs and culture” of logging, mining and grazing on public land–is one meeting point for the militias and wise use.

“If you talk to people in charge of enforcing environmental rules, they’re really scared,” says Jim Baca, former BLM Director.

Some environmentalists, however, question whether the Justice Department has devoted adequate attention to attacks on activists and federal workers. Jeff DeBonis, Executive Director of Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility, claims that the Justice Department held no “thorough investigation” into the Reno BLM attack last year. “It was pretty much swept under the carpet,” he says.

However, Jim Sweeney, a Justice Department spokesman, says that the department takes every threat against government employees seriously. “We have taken the appropriate response,” he says. And while Sweeney admits concerns have mounted about the role of the militias in attacks on federal employees, he claims that at this stage it is “just speculation.”

JUSTICE, LOUD AND CLEAR

“Garbage, garbage, garbage,” a standing-room only crowd of 1,000 chants. Folk singer Charlie King turns to the stage, where EPA Administrator Carol Browner sits wide-eyed in her fuschia power suit. “People here have very sensitive garbage detectors,” he tells her. “We didn’t come here to hear a lot of–.” He motions to the crowd to fill in the blank, and they bellow back “GARBAGE.”

Welcome to the annual meeting of National People’s Action (NPA)–a multi-cultural coalition of 300 social justice groups from across the country. NPA’s confrontational style minces no words–and gets results. Before Browner was allowed to speak, environmental justice activists from around the country presented her with symbols of their concerns: lead-contaminated soil from San Antonia; a giant water bill from the Bronx; contaminated water from tiny Kerrville, Texas that residents believe causes typhoid-like symptoms; and a skull and cross bones to symbolize “blatant environmental racism.”

During last year’s annual meeting, 15 busloads of NPA members descended on Browner’s house to extract a promise to visit 12 cities across the country with environmental justice concerns. (This year, the group converged on House Speaker Newt Gingrich’s home.) At the meeting this April in Washington, D.C., Browner signed a contract committing her to visit at least eight cities in the next year, including East Liverpool, Ohio, home to the country’s largest hazardous waste incinerator.

Browner told NPA, “You not only need my help, I need your help. There are bills before Congress that will prevent me from ever setting a standard for air, water or public health. I need you all, and I know you are very capable of letting your voices be heard, because at the end of the day they will listen to you, they listen to your neighborhoods and communities.”

Are Environmental Groups Really Dying?

enmtrd“Environmental Groups Are Drying Up in the `2010s.” “Green Magazines in the Red. “Environmental Movement Struggling as Clout Fades.” The headlines in the nation’s press read like epitaphs.

A Wall Street Journal article observed that, “After years of fighting to save whales and spotted owls, the nation’s big environmental groups are in agony about another dwindling species – their supporters.”

Adding to the perception that the greens have lost their muscle was the dismal lack of legislative victories in the last Congress, when the Democrats controlled both houses and the White House.

But it’s not just the media offering a grim prognosis. “The environmental movement is in massive decline and is going to need a major overhaul if it wants to stage a comeback,” says Eric Mann, director of the Labor/Community Strategy Center in Los Angeles.

A quarter-century past the first Earth Day, is the environmental movement really in its last gasp? Or, in the words of Mark Twain, have reports of its death been greatly exaggerated?

One thing is clear: If the movement is ailing, it’s not due to lack of popular support for the issues. Public opinion polls reflect a strong and consistent commitment to the environment. A Times Mirror survey last June found that 79 percent of respondents describe themselves as active (23 percent) or sympathetic (56 percent) environmentalists. More than half thought environmental laws hadn’t gone far enough, with only 16 percent thinking laws had gone too far. Environmental groups were also given high ratings, with 74 percent feeling highly or moderately favorable toward them. Eighty-nine percent of college students named the environment as the top concern facing the nation in 1992, according to The Student Political Organizing Guide, published by Sierra Club Campus Green Vote and Americans for the Environment.

This support is reflected in the hefty membership rolls and multi-million-dollar budgets of the nation’s largest environmental organizations. Some, like the Nature Conservancy, World Wildlife Fund and Environmental Defense Fund, are experiencing remarkable growth. Others, like the National Audubon Society and Natural Resources Defense Council, lost support when President Clinton was elected, but are now rebounding. Local groups continue to flourish, with the Citizens Clearinghouse on Hazardous Waste (CCHW) in touch with more than 8,000 community organizations.

“Overall, the membership trend was downward,” says Matt MacWilliams, managing partner of MCSSR, a communications consulting firm based in Takoma Park, Maryland, which represents numerous environmental clients. “Not because people were less interested in the environment, but because they thought the problems were being solved when Clinton was elected Since the [congressional] elections, many groups have been picking up membership. Ifs a direct relation to the perceived threat.”

“When Republicans are in office, we seem to get stronger, more united and more powerful,” agrees Luis Sepulveda, president of West Dallas Coalition for Environmental Justice. “Environmental programs get more support.”

While the state of the movement may not be as bad as some have said, most would agree that environmentalists need to regain some of their earlier vigor. Critics from both the right and left point to national groups they say are bloated with bureaucracy, overrun with lawyers and far removed from their grassroots base.

“The most fundamental problem is the collapse of much of the mainstream environmental movement into an explicitly pro-corporate stance,” says Mann.

Not surprisingly, articles in the mainstream press contend that it’s this pro-corporate stance that offers a promising future for environmentalism. For example, an article in the Philadelphia Inquirer argued that EDF’s policy of working with McDonald’s and Prudential Insurance on recycling is just the kind of practical, problem-solving approach that the public wants.

A conservative analysis, “Restructuring Environmental Big Business,” by the Center for the Study of American Business at Washington University in St. Louis, attributes what it calls a public backlash not only to top-heavy bureaucracy but to the movement’s purported exaggeration of environmental dangers and the tendency of most groups to take on such a broad agenda that their mission is lost. “Policy makers and potential donors find it increasingly difficult to tell different organizations apart. Essentially, different environmental groups are offering potential supporters identical products,” according to the report. The report gives high marks to the Nature Conservancy, which has kept its focus on buying land for nature preserves.

All this dissection of the movement has led to some soul-searching. “The national groups, including Greenpeace, did become too large in the 1980s and did grow top-heavy,” says Barbara Dudley, executive director of Greenpeace. “The draw to legislative solutions was too seductive and took the large organizations that evolved from a mass movement too far away from their grassroots.”

“It’s fair to say the environmental movement is confronting extraordinary change, not just in terms of Newt [Gingrich], but far more fundamental and pervasive,” says Lynn Greenwalt, vice president of the National Wildlife Federation (NWF).

Some of the changes are administrative. In an effort to streamline organization, staffs are being cut and publications scaled back. For example, last year, Friends of the Earth pared back the frequency of its newsmagazine from monthly to bimonthly, and NWF is now considering contracting out its mail order business as a way to save money.

But other changes are substantive, with a renewed respect and attention being paid to the grassroots. “A lot of the action is at the state level and we’ll be shifting staff and resources there,” says Greenwalt. “The grassroots is not in Washington. There are plenty of people out there willing to work on their own behalf and for the environment and the human future. That means redeploying resources, money or ideas from here to there.”

The National Audubon Society, based in New York, is in the midst of a major strategic planning process, involving interviews with hundreds of members, staff and board members from around the country, as well as colleagues, political leaders and foundations. “We tried to glean from them some of their best ideas on how we should organize ourselves for the future,” says Tom Martin, Audubon’s chief operating officer.

Like NWF, Audubon plans to shift more attention to the organization’s 500 chapters. “We’re not going to affect Congress through insider lobbying. We have to do it in the home offices [of legislators]. The advocacy will move outside the Beltway,” says Martin.

But the very remedy proposed by many pundits for the environmental movement – to become more pragmatic and single-focused – is not likely to emerge from a grassroots strategy. For example, NWF plans to continue expanding its message beyond wildlife to include public health concerns. “It’s impossible to separate human health issues from those that affect other creatures,” says Greenwalt. “A toxin in the Great Lakes may be devastating to fish and ducks, but it’s also not good for people.”

As activists make clear in the interviews on the future of environmentalism, beginning on page 5, the trend is increasingly toward building coalitions and making connections between environmental and social justice concerns. “In the long run we’ll win the battle because we’re on the side of average Americans,” says environmental consultant Matt MacWilliams. “The other side has been able to marginalize us as elitist and extremist. So the biggest task is to make the environmental message relevant once again to the mainstream. We need to talk to them in terms of what really matters: the health and safety of their families and their communities.”

Whether you call it the mainstream or the grassroots, if national groups follow through on their commitment to communities, the movement could well recapture its former ardor. “Let me reveal a not so obscure secret,” says Greenpeace’s Dudley. “The grassroots environmental groups are a far sight more radical than the national groups.”

Local groups faced with a hazardous facility moving in next door are much less willing to compromise than are the Washington representatives of national groups trying to craft a piece of legislation. In addition, the initial anger and fear about a local site often spreads to other issues as well. “The environmental movement caved in on NAFTA (North American Free Trade Agreement),” says Sue Lynch, executive director of People Against Hazardous Landfill Sites (PAHLS), in Valparaiso, Indiana. “The local groups didn’t. We worked with our local unions and opposed NAFTA. If we cave in, we’re really letting the people down who are counting on us.”

In ways that even the best-intentioned national groups are unable to do, grassroots activism gives a movement its edge. As Lois Gibbs, director of Citizens Clearinghouse for Hazardous Waste, points out, “In most communities, people don’t think they can fight City Hall. We give people back a sense of self-worth and empowerment. We help them build up their self-confidence and say yes, you can.”

Ultimately it will be this self-empowerment that promises not only a healthy future for the environmental movement, but for democracy as well.

Need To Cut Corporate Welfare? Start With Polluters!

ntccwfAfter the slash-and-burn fervor with which Congress passed provisions of the Contract With America, the climate for environmental protection on Capitol Hill has never seemed chillier (see “Activist Alert,” page 30). But the budget-chopping frenzy could actually benefit forests and waterways and even help lead us on a path to more sustainable transportation. By cutting subsidies to big business and resource extraction industries and by reigning in environmentally destructive federal projects, billions of dollars could be trimmed from the federal budget.

In all, taxpayers will spend $51 billion in direct subsidies to corporations and lose another $53.3 billion through tax breaks for corporations this year, according to the Office on Management and Budget. Nearly $6 billion a year goes to nuclear subsidies alone.

Terminating the National Ignition Facility at Livermore Lab, designed to help increase our understanding of nuclear weapons physics, saves $1.8 billion, for example. Halting funding for the Auburn Dam, an exorbitant new facility sited on an earthquake fault near Sacramento, could provide a savings of at least $600 million.

These are just a couple of the 34 items found in “The Green Scissors Report,” which identifies wasteful and environmentally harmful spending that, if cut, would save taxpayers $33 billion. The report was compiled by Friends of the Earth and the National Taxpayers Union Foundation (NTU), with input from 23 other environmental and public interest organizations, including Environmental Action.

“This report is saying, `Washington, you have to end politics as usual. This is a new era’,” says Jill Lancelot of the NTU.

There’s be enormous interest from both Republicans and Democrats on the Hill and a great response all over the country from environmentalists who like being on the offensive for a change,” says Ralph DeGennaro, director the appropriations project for Friends of the Earth.

Some of the proposals are already being considered on the Hill, among them, elimination of the National Ignition Facility, sugar subsidies, the Rural Electrification Administration and the GTMHR gas-cooled nuclear reactor. The gas-cooled reactor would cost $2.6 billion in coming years and has been targeted for elimination by the Administration and some in Congress. The National Science Foundation has found no merit in the project and urges that it be denied funding.

The Army Corps of Engineers Inland Waterway program may fall victim to the House Budget committee ax. Cutting this subsidy for barge owners would save $1.1 billion over five years.

Another corporate subsidy targeted by environmentalists is road building in national forests. “We’ve argued now for years to cut the road budget and shift the burden on to timber companies,” says Cathy Carlson, legislative representative for the National Wildlife Federation. “It’s ridiculous that the taxpayer continues to pay for these mini-freeways in our National Forests.” Few of the roads allow public access for recreation, says Carlson, and $500 million could be saved.

The “Green Scissors Report” recommends doing away with other roads as well. For example, the I-69 Highway Extension in Indiana, dubbed the “Highway to Nowhere,” would destroy 4,000 acres of farmland and forest and cost $800 million. An equal sum could be saved by nixing Corridor H in West Virginia and another $900 million by blocking Route 710 in Los Angeles County. “These highways are perfect examples of misdirected federal funds,” says Nancy Hirsh, senior energy policy analyst for Environmental Action. “They don’t make economic sense, given the alternatives that have been proposed in each local area, and they don’t make environmental sense.”

Grazing and mining subsidies, long opposed by environmentalists, are also targeted, but may be long shots for elimination, according to Lancelot. Of the two, reforming the 1872 Mining Act, to require mining companies to pay royalties on minerals extracted from public lands, is more likely to be passed. “More and more the public is hearing about the rip-off of mining and how absurd it is – the metal for free, the land going for the price of a couple of McDonald’s hamburgers and the waste we’re left with. This is an outrage that’s going to garner a lot of support,” says Lancelot.

The Democratic Party’s Progressive Policy Institute also has a proposal to end corporate welfare and use the money to retrain workers. One popular target is the Agriculture Department’s Market Promotion Program, which will give American companies $100 million this year to advertise abroad. Taxpayers have been subsidizing M&M/Mars, Gallo Wines, Sunkist and Campbell’s Soups, among other corporations, to hawk their wares overseas.

The International Teamsters Union has joined in the fight, protesting federal advertising dollars for Diamond Walnuts. The union declared a boycott of the walnuts four years ago because of the company’s treatment of workers. Diamond uses the pesticide methyl bromide, which can cause nerve and brain damage to workers who are exposed to it.

“Corporate welfare has created a culture of dependence that has encouraged certain industries to live off the taxpayers,” says Peter Montague in Rachel’s Environment & Health Weekly. “And unlike the vast majority of individuals who receive public assistance, most corporate welfare recipients are not particularly needy.”

But the Republican budget cutters so far show far more zeal for going after school lunches and weatherization programs than they do for nuclear power or oil companies. “We’re wondering whether the Republicans are really going to go after corporate pork or not,” says Hirsh.

Even if they do, there’s no assurance the savings would go to taxpayers. One “Green Scissors” recommendation that has already passed is the elimination of $200 million from this year’s Clean Coal Technology Program. But you won’t see the savings reflected on your tax returns in April. The money’s been earmarked for the Pentagon.

Is It Still Possible To “Get Press”?

pressrDURING MY FIVE YEARS AS A BUSINESS WRITER FOR The Miami Herald, I must have sifted through thousands of press releases and fielded hundreds of phone calls from local business owners and their public relations people trying to pitch me stories.

Few of these stories ever make it into the paper, and most of the press releases end up in the trash. The reason: They just aren’t news. On the other hand, a small band of local businesspeople and professionals seem to pop up regularly in the pages of The Herald’s Business Monday tabloid.

What makes the difference? Some people know how to play the game, others don’t have a clue. Art Berkowitz was one of the savvy ones. CPA Berkowitz, 45, a Laguna Niguel, California, sole practitioner who used to work in suburban Miami, wasn’t a partner at a Big Six accounting firm and hadn’t written any best-selling books. But week after week, Berkowitz would manage to get himself mentioned in The Herald’s business section, sometimes offering tax advice, other times holding forth on college financing strategies. Berkowitz’s secret: contacting reporters who covered his areas of expertise and then being available to return their phone calls quickly.

“Some of it was persistence, but a lot of it was luck,” admits Berkowitz, who has not made much headway in getting noticed by his new local paper, The Orange County Register. “You just have to be at the fight place at the fight time.”

As Berkowitz’s experience shows, capturing the attention of the local business press–the business section of the daily newspaper, the weekly journal, or the monthly magazine–is never an exact science. Although companies sometimes get results from a carefully crafted press release and a few strategic phone calls to the appropriate editor or reporter, I’ve seen plenty of businesses get press, or fail to get it, due to the vagaries of publication deadlines. I recall one Miami law firm that kept after me for a year to do a profile, but there was never a news hook to hang the story on. Then, late one Tuesday afternoon, a story that was scheduled to run fell through. My editors scrambled to find a replacement. That Monday, the Miami law firm finally got its profile in The Herald–and was later featured on the front page of The National Law Journal too.

Getting Through to the Press “The more you understand the local media and how they operate, the better you can use them to market yourself and your business,” says Toni Charbonnet, the public relations person who represents the Miami law firm Valdes-Fauli, Cobb, Bischoff & Kriss.

But even though this advice comes from a PR specialist, you need not hire one to get your name in the paper. Even for entrepreneurs on a budget, there are plenty of cost-effective ways to catch the attention of the local press.

1. Tell us why we should ever write about you. Most local business writers work for daily newspapers. That means they’re on deadline, grinding out as many as three or four news stories a day in addition to writing features for the paper’s weekly business section. Pitch your story as succinctly as possible with a quick phone call or a short press release.

“The trick on the phone is to get the pitch out briefly and articulately,” says Sandra Beckwith, 39, a home-based public relations specialist in Fairport, New York, who often writes down a one- or two-sentence pitch and rehearses it before she calls the media.

2. Tell us why we should write about you today. Have you just rolled out a hot new product? Bagged a Fortune 500 client? Landed a government contract? Hired a new executive? Won an award? This is the kind of stuff that the local business press considers news and will probably want to run right away.

“Spend the time to analyze what is unique or different about your business or the product you produce-and what makes it news,” advises Charbonnet.

3. Don’t swing for the fences, just try to get on base. One of the biggest reasons why businesses fail to get written up is that they aim too high. Few newspapers would ever run an entire feature story about a CPA in solo practice, for instance, but somebody like Berkowitz–who’s articulate, informative, and available to the media-can get himself quoted with some regularity in articles that show off his expertise. Beckwith suggests sending out a brief note telling the local business editor or reporter who you are, what you do, and what you’d like to comment on.

4. Read all about it. This may seem obvious, but the best way to find out how to press the local media’s hot buttons is to read the paper and see what kind of stories typically run. While most weekly business tabloids contain a cover story and several full-length features, many also have departments devoted to new hires, awards, and promotions plus locally produced columns on marketing, the professions, retailing, and other topics. Find out where your news item would fit and send an announcement to the reporter or editor in charge.

5. Know your audience. Getting to know the likes, dislikes, interests, and preferences of the business writers who cover your industry or profession is just as vital to selling your story to the local media as market research is to peddling your product or service to potential customers. “A reporter who is also a mother may be interested in safety issues involving toys,” notes Charbonnet.

6. Meet the press. Even if there may be nothing newsworthy to say about your business at the moment, it’s a good idea to get know the local reporter who covers your field so that, when you do have something to announce, you’ll have a listening audience.

7. Make our lives easier. Some local business reporters are too busy to bother with your story, others are just too lazy. Sometimes the quickest way to light a fire under a reporter is to send over some clippings from papers that have covered your story already. When Beckwith decided to launch the Do(o)little Report, a newsletter that takes a humorous look at oddities of male behavior, she sent out press releases to both the national and local media. USA Today, The Wall Street Journal, Eye to Eye With Connie Chung, and National Public Radio all picked up the story–but not her two local Rochester papers, the Democrat & Chronicle and the Times-Union.

“Finally, I ended up sending a few clips to the local business folks with an FYI note [and got] a major feature in the daily newspaper’s Monday business section,” Beckwith recalls.

8. Keep your name current. A deluge of press releases or phone calls will most likely turn off the local business reporter, whereas a mailing every couple of months can be useful to keep the press aware of your existence. To keep her name out there, Beckwith mails a quarterly newsletter about her company to the local media in addition to press releases.

9. Hire a professional if you can’t do it yourself. Even though business reporters–and journalists in general–tend to have a low opinion of public relations people, it may be worth hiring one if you can’t write a grammatical sentence or are too busy running your business to take time to court the media. A good public relations specialist–who might cost you $2,000 a month–can also monitor the local business press to see what’s being covered and by whom.

Even so, says Charbonnet, “If you’re a small firm starting out of your house, I’d do a marketing plan first and direct mail and that sort of stuff. Then I’d analyze whether I’m doing anything different enough to warrant hiring a PR person.”

10. Prepare for the long haul. Building a relationship with the local business press can often take years. Don’t be disappointed if the reporter you spent an hour with on the phone quotes you only once in her story– or doesn’t mention you at all.

Berkowitz, the Miami CPA who recently moved to California, says the introductory letter he sent to the business editor of The Orange County Register so far has failed to produce any phone calls from reporters seeking his expert opinion. But, he says, he hasn’t given up. His next step will be to expand his efforts to other editors, writers, and newspapers.

“The trick is to get quoted once,” Berkowitz says. “Then you stand a chance.”

Don’t Give Your Expertise Away!

expawDAVID LAWRENCE, A.K.A. DOCTOR MAC, CALLS THEM the “hit and runs.” He’ll be sitting at his desk, minding his own Washington, D.C., radio talk-show and computer-consulting business, and the phone will ring.

“Before they even give me their names, or ask about fees, they ask questions,” Lawrence says of this certain breed of caller. “What’s the best word processor under $1007 What’s the command for bold type in Microsoft Word? Why is my screen showing a question mark even though I inserted a disk?”

In the bad old days, Lawrence used to answer every question, politely and completely. Then he noticed a trend. The people whose rapid-fire questions he answered on the phone were not the ones who became his best clients. He found himself spending a lot of time answering queries on the phone for free.

“My time is my inventory,” muses Lawrence. “And if someone takes from inventory, he should pay for it.” Call Lawrence out of the blue today, and he’ll politely interrupt to take your name and address so he can send you a bill. The chat will cost you $1.50 a minute.

This is not to say that Lawrence is unreasonable or totally mercenary. Larger or existing clients get some slack (three minutes or less on the phone for free), and he trades info with professional colleagues on a case-by-case basis. But Lawrence has already learned what many of the rest of us are still struggling with: You can’t make money by giving away what you’re supposed to sell.

Don’t Give Away the Store

The need to donate your services is a problem in many creative fields. Novice writers are often told they must create stories on spec, hoping that the editor will like them. Architects are told their potential clients won’t know if they are right for the job until the clients see the design. Advertising agencies may have it the worst; for them, it is the rule, rather than the exception, that you do the work before you get the work.

Even in noncreative endeavors, the first sign that you’ve really made it to expert status are the number of phone calls and written requests you get for free information. Sometimes, when the information is easy for you to come by and it’s a relationship that you want to nurture, it’s OK for you to give it away. Other times, you have to just say no. Here are a few tips for learning how and where to draw your own lines in the dust.

Establish procedures.

If you always do business in the same way, it’s easier to handle impromptu requests. Paul Treseder is an architect who used to give his time away on occasion. Now he has a firm policy: If he visits you, he bills you $75 an hour for an initial consultation. You can drop by his home office, look at his project photo book (and the great home he designed), and chat for half an hour for free. That’s it, and it works well for him.

Paint word pictures.

Smart Sanders, president of Sanders Consulting Group in Richmond, Virginia, trains advertising agencies in how to get new business. Instead of creating a mock-up of an annual report or brochure, says Sanders, simply tell potential clients what you will create for them. Use descriptive phrases like “a strikingly spare, black-and-gold, glossy cover” or “a soft-focus foldout panel of a country scene.” That way, you’re still offering ideas but nothing firm enough for the clients to execute without you. And your lack of specificity enables the prospects to imagine and embellish the work the way they want it, much as you can imagine a book hero more handsome than the actor who might play him in the movies.

Be rough.

“The world is moving to faster, quicker, sooner,” notes Sanders. Sometimes, Treseder’s architecture clients aren’t sure what they want, so they ask him to do some sketches. He’ll come up with some rough ideas, draw them quickly, and bill at his typical hourly rate. The drawings get more detailed as the clients get more settled in what they want. By the time Treseder is drawing builders’ blueprints, the client has approved–and paid for–all the preliminary work. Sanders suggests that regular rough work and a steady schedule of client approvals protects you from going too far down the road on a project your client just isn’t going to like or pay for.

Protect yourself from theft.

Outright theft is a much more unusual problem than the other examples, but it happens. My brother, Ed Stem, runs his own advertising agency in Columbia, Maryland. He once presented an ad concept to a client who didn’t hire anybody. A short time later, my brother saw his ads in a newspaper. Now he pastes “Property of the Stem Agency” statements on all of his work. Copyright law holds that if you create something and add a similar statement to it, you probably own the copyright.

Strut your stuff.

If a prospect is uncertain about what you produce, show her what you have already done. A booklet of samples, a few references or testimonials from other clients, or even a list of past clients might convince her you know of what you speak. Sanders cautions his clients against showing too many samples: When overwhelmed, potential clients are just as likely to find work they dislike as work they love. Sometimes one or two samples works the best, he suggests.

Set separate rules for colleagues.

Networking is a powerful tool, and you often learn more by swapping knowledge with cohorts than you do from any book, course, or (even) magazine. Figure out what feels comfortable. Lawrence is a Mac consultant who trades information regularly with a fellow PC consultant. Other pros share tips with one another in open, back-and-forth relationships. Still others like to help newcomers get a leg up. Some people will call out of the blue; they even have the chutzpah to admit they’re setting up shop across the street and just want to “pick your brain” (a direct quote from a call I got this morning) about everything you know regarding your business.

Help beginners unfreely.

If you frequently and regularly go over the same ground with neophytes, consider making money on what you know. Charge a consulting fee, offer a course, or write a booklet about how to get into the business. If you know your stuff, you will be offering a worthwhile service. But be very, very cautious about ever giving away the names of your clients and your suppliers.

Get by giving.

Decide when it’s worthwhile to give something away. Stem feels that creativity is his selling point. Since his is a small two-year-old agency, he also feels that he has to do more up-front work to win clients than a more-established agency might. But Stern picks and chooses his opportunities. A potential big-name client with a big budget will get more speculative work out of him than a small company that needs only one brochure or ad. Sanders calls this approach the “four Fs.” Decide which clients have the funds, offer the most fun, possible fame, or footsteps that will lead you to bigger and better things. Do a little more for them than you would for the lower-budget client who doesn’t hold much prospect for exciting work.

Give it away in style.

Maybe you’re just starting out, and you realize you have to build a reputation before you can command high fees. Instead of waiting for someone to ask you for a freebie, pick your pro bono case. Do some speculative work for a prospective client whom you believe in, who will make you look good, and who will spread your name around.

Ask for money.

This is tricky. Sometimes, when they’re in competition for work, businesspeople are asked to provide lengthy and creative proposals or sample projects. In reply, try this request: “I can write that sample chapter for you, but I’ll have to bill you at my hourly rate.” There’s good news and bad news in this approach. The good news, as Treseder has pointed out, is that you’re always up-to-date on being paid for your work. The bad news, notes Sanders, is that the client might pay you a little to create something and then proceed as if he owned that item, without ever moving to the more lucrative contract you thought was at the end of the process. You may be better off keeping control of the preliminary work until the whole project is contracted.

Market aggressively and proactively. Sanders’s colleague, Chuck Meyst, notes that the key to being able to walk away from prospects who ask for too much is never to be desperate. Plan to spend 25 percent of your time marketing, and always have many irons in the fire. If the phone tings and the person on the other end is asking for the moon, June, and spoon, you can always croon a simple “no.”

Managing Money In A Growing Business

mmiagWE ALL WORK TOO HARD FOR OUR MONEY TO LET IT SIT around slothfully without earning its keep. In today’s financial marketplace, your money can either make more money or it can lose money, depending on the banking and saving choices you make and the ways you handle your cash flow.

Practice the following money-management techniques now, while interest rates are low, and they may not seem to make much difference. But then, as rates rise, you’ll be in position to take maximum advantage of the higher yields.

1. Remind yourself of the time value of money. That’s the notion that time devalues money (through inflation) or multiplies it (if it’s invested profitably). Hide $1,000 in your desk drawer, and in five years it will have the buying power of only $837, if inflation remains a minimal 3.5 percent. Invest it at 5 percent instead, and in five years it will have the buying power of $1,077. Money that sits around and fails to keep up with inflation gets lost, just as surely as money that falls out of your pocket or purse.

2. Deposit money as soon as it comes in. Sometimes businesses hold onto checks until orders are processed or until they have the time to enter the deposits in their bookkeeping systems.

“There’s absolutely no excuse for letting badly needed cash sit idle in a drawer,” writes Barry Schimel, a Rockville, Maryland, CPA in his book 100 Ways to Prosper in Today’s Economy (Acropolis Books). “As a general rule,” he says, “deposit your receipts first and worry about the bookkeeping later.” Schimel recommends that you photocopy checks you may need to look at later and then deposit the real thing–no less frequently than daily.

3. Consider a lockbox. If your business receives a lot of money through the mail–say over $100,000 a year–ask your banker to set up a lockbox for you, suggests Lynchburg, Virginia, small-business planner Rick Huff. This is a post office box (also called a drop box) that your bank can access. Once (or even more frequently) a day, the bank will send someone to clear out the box, take out the checks, and deposit them in your interest-bearing account. For their efforts, most banks charge a fee, offer reduced interest on your account, or generally arrange to make some money on your money.

4. Pay off expensive debt. If you bought your last computer on a credit card that charges 16 percent interest, or if you borrowed from a business line at your bank to make your quarterly tax payment, devote all extra cash to paying off those debts first. It doesn’t matter that the interest is tax deductible, since eliminating such interest is the only way to earn such an easy double-digit return.

5. Talk to the hankers. Can you find a bank that will offer you free checking, paired with an interest-earning money-market deposit account? You earn money on every deposit until the bank “sweeps”. funds from that account into your checking account to pay bills. Alternatively, look for a bank that will pay interest on a no-fee business checking account–but these are not so easy to find.

6. Accumulate short-term savings in moneymarket mutual funds. These funds are not insured as bank deposits are but, rather, stake their reputation on stability. They invest in highly rated, very short-term loans to banks, businesses, and governments and do not have the price fluctuations that other mutual funds have. They are considered extremely safe.

Currently yielding around 2.7 percent, these funds won’t make you rich, but they will often pay a bit better than most bank accounts, minus the fees. And since money fund investments are short term, they are positioned to benefit as soon as rates rise. Moneymarket funds offer check writing, although many put a $500 minimum on the amount of the checks.

7. Go a step further–do all of your transactions from a money fund. William E. Donoghue, publisher of Donoghue’$ MoneyLetter in Ashland, Massachusetts, and the nation’s premium money market maven, reserves special words of praise for the United Services Government Securities Savings Fund ([800] 873-8637). This money fund goes out of its way to please small businesses, he notes. It has unlimited free checking ($500 minimum) and pays a competitive rate of interest. Since it invests mostly in treasury bills, the dividends it pays are taxed at the federal level but not at the state or local level.

Donoghue–who, incidentally, also works from his home office across the country in Seattle–uses the United Services fund for all of his business transactions. His comptroller deposits checks into his local checking account and immediately writes a check for that same amount to mail to United Services. By the time the check is received at the fund, the ones he’s deposited at the bank have cleared. And he earns daily dividends on every single penny of balance until the minute the checks he writes clear.

8. Tax free or not to be? Consider your tax rate and decide whether it makes sense to be a tax-free investor. Tax-free money funds invest in municipal securities that are exempt from federal taxes. If you live and work in a high tax state, you can invest in triple tax-free funds that buy only bonds and notes from within your state and therefore pay dividends that are exempt from federal, state, and local taxes. But you pay a price in diversification with a triple taxfree fund. And if the state you live in has very highly rated bonds, you may pay a price in yield, too.

If you are in one of the new top tax brackets, such as the 36 percent federal income tax level for a single individual with a taxable income of $115,000 or more, tax-free investing make sense. You can buy into a tax-free fund that works just like a taxable money-market fund. But if you are in the 28 percent bracket, you’ll have to crunch some numbers to see if it’s worth your while.

Here’s the rule of thumb that can help you decide. Divide the tax-free yield of the money fund you’re thinking of by what’s left after you subtract your tax rate from 1; the answer is the equivalent rate you’d have to earn in taxable interest. For example: Your federal tax rate is 28 percent and you are considering a tax-free fund yielding 2 percent. Subtract 0.28 from 1 and get 0.72. Divide 2 by 0.72 and get 2.78 percent. Can you get a taxable fund yielding more than that? Go for it! If not, invest tax-free.

9. Dip into bonds. For longer-term business savings, take a little more risk and make a little more money. Short-term bond funds earn yields that are about 2.5 percentage points higher than money funds but have average maturities of six months to three years. If interest rates rise, long-term bond funds may slump but these short-term funds will only hiccup, suggests Huff. He tells his clients to shunt extra business cash to Vanguard’s short-term bond funds because they are no load and are known for having among the lowest costs in the mutual fund industry.

10. Invest in your business. With interest rates so low today, a $1,000 promotion has to bring in only about $1,025 of new business (net expenses, of course) to beat the bank’s rate of return over six months. If a new laser printer will reduce your printing bills, or if a new part-time assistant will free you to go after bigger clients and more productive projects, try putting your money to work yourself.